Narinder Kumar Neb Challenges and Responses: An Overview A number of material, cultural and theoretical developments have introduced tremendous changes in social life and the ways of understanding reality. These changes have impacted the nature and study of literary writings including poetry.
The notion of Indianess change when notions of identity and existence find new horizons. It was inevitable then that the tinge of pessimism that was part of the early Indian English Literature give way to fresh approaches.
Consequently, the Indian English Literary scene especially poetry has become experimental with the changing times. They use English as an Indian as well as a global language, without the "peculiar hang-ups" exhibited by many in the earlier generations….
Thankfully, the last traces of archaic forms of British English have finally vanished. The new generation of poets is unafraid, motivated, clear sighted, and they use English with a sense of ease.
Their language, style, rhythms, and forms are inventive, original, and contemporary. They did revolutionize the terrain of Indian poetry in English; however what is striking is the emergence of Women Poets.
They brought to their verses modernist and post modernist nuances, explicitly and expertly speaking about the changing contours of language and identity.
The margins began to shift and new realms to their existence came alive through Poetry and the madness that it invokes. Creativity here is a merging of the public and the private and something beyond that.
They were a far cry from the poetry of the Toru Sisters and Sarojini Naidu which according to Jenny Booth mimicked 19th century diction, sentiment and romanticized love. Ironically this was the reason why they were suppressed in the beginning.
They found a way of articulation through this hyphenated language which is as ambivalent as they are. At this juncture the thoughts of Luce Irigaray about a genuine feminine language, emphazising difference comes up.
Her statements are never identical to anything. Their distinguishing feature is contiguity Greene This fact shines through in the poetry of these poets. It is inevitable then, that this celebration of differences is evident in the poetic output of these poets.
What characterized their verse is the opening up of possibilities not just in themes but in the way language was handled. They brought in their innate selves enlightened by their location and cultures.
It also saw a marked shift in their concerns. The gap between the private and the public narrowed down slowly. Their poetry was their take on life and they easily let them out through powerful, yet novel images, which was not visible in the earlier writers.
The emphasis of their poetry was difference focusing on themes such as relationships, personality, and self exploration, political and social consciousness. Interestingly, Post colonial feminism also emphasizes location and cultural difference among women.
And it is in the production of this "Third World Difference" that Western feminisms appropriate and "colonize" the fundamental complexities and conflicts which characterize the lives of women of different classes, religions, cultures, races and castes in these countries.
It is in this process of homogenization and systematization of the oppression of women in the third world that power is exercised in much of recent Western feminist discourse, and this power needs to be defined and named. Ironically, even when all these poets are clubbed under Indian Women poets it is not possible to homogenize the oeuvre of poetry by them under a single head.
She is one among the pioneers who drew a modernist and post — modernist terrain in Indian English Poetry. She is among the few writers who had continued to enrich the Modern Indian English Poetry from the beginning in till her death in The boldness in her voice was a positive start as she began the trend of setting off strong yet different voices.
Women writers owe a special debt to Kamala Das. She mapped out the terrain for post-colonial women in social and linguistic terms.
Whatever her vernacular oddities, she has spared us the colonial cringe. She has also spared us what in some circles, nativist and expatriate, is still considered mandatory: What shines through is the fact that sometimes they become the subject of their work in order to attain a sense of closure.
They seem to dwell on the idea of a self as divided or multiple located within and constructed through various discourses. A woman is not the same everywhere, but is determined by their particular situation.
In short their poems seem to be collages of images, memories, legends and traditions, an intricate dovetailing of themes and forms.
However, the predominant theme is an inherent conflict within her and she comes alive by putting them into words. By its very definition, it is a hybrid.Barbara Jane Reyes was born in Manila, the Philippines, and grew up in the San Francisco Bay area. She earned a BA in ethnic studies from the University of California at Berkeley and an MFA from San Francisco State University.
She is the author of the poetry collections Gravities of Center (), Poeta en San Francisco (), winner of the James Laughlin Award from the Academy of American. Dr Santanu Das gives an introduction to the poetry of the First World War, providing fascinating commentary on a range of topics, supported by literary manuscripts and historical footage.
These female Indian poets were all trailblazers; they were among the first, and it is on their shoulders that I stood when I first began writing poetry as a child.
I used to read poetry from the. On the Fringes: Marginalized Voices in English Literature () ISBN , AUTHORSPRESS, NEW DELHI From Bondages to Emancipation: Women in English Literature.
English poetry had acquired a new horizon and even respectability towards Indian women. There was a further strengthen of the modern trend in the years that followed independence. The main figures associated with this period are Kamala Das (), Gauri Deshpande.
1 INDIAN WOMEN WRITERS AN OVERVIEW Indian Women writing in English is being recognised as major contemporary current in English language- Literature.