However, the theoretical response to these great changes often drew heavily upon traditional ideas and assumptions, at least north of the Alps, where political thinkers were not as ready as were Machiavelli and Guicciardini to throw off customary preconceptions. They still saw political life and its problems largely from a religious point of view and from the background of a traditional hierarchical conception of the nature of the universe. This is especially true of Luther.
However towns grew larger and more important. During the 16th century trade and industry grew rapidly and England became a more and more commercial country.
Mining of coal, tin and lead flourished. So did the iron industry. During this period England became richer and richer. As England grew more and more prosperous life for the well off became more and more comfortable. Upper class and middle class people benefited from the growing wealth of the country.
However for the poor in Tudor England life did not improve. For them life was hard and rough. Meanwhile in the 15th century the population of England may have been around 2 and a half million. It rose steadily during the 16th century.
By it had risen to around 3 million and by it was about 4 million.
Tudor society was divided into four broad groups. At the top were the nobility who owned huge amounts of land. Below them were the gentry and rich merchants.
Gentlemen owned large amounts of land and they were usually educated and had a family coat of arms.
Most important gentlemen never did any manual work. Below the gentry were yeomen and craftsmen. Yeomen owned their own land. They could be as wealthy as gentlemen but they worked alongside their men.
Yeomen and craftsmen were often able to read and write. Below the yeomen were the tenant farmers who leased their land from the rich. There were also wage laborers. They were often illiterate and very poor.
In Tudor Times the parish became the basis of local government. The most important person was an appointed magistrate called the Justice of the Peace. Meanwhile in Tudor Times kings and queens grew stronger. During the Middle Ages the barons held castles, which were difficult to capture so it was easy for them to rebel.
Cannons changed all that. In Tudor Times there were thousands of people without jobs wandering around looking for work. There were also disabled beggars. There were also people who pretended to be mad or disabled in order to beg.
Tudor governments tolerated disabled beggars. However they did not tolerate able-bodied people without jobs wandering from place to place. Since the 14th century there had been laws against vagabonds but in a new law was passed.
The old and disabled poor were to be given licences to beg. However anyone roaming without a job was tied to a cart in the nearest market town and whipped till they were bloody.
They were then forced to return to the parish where they had been born or where they had lived for the last 3 years. A law of said vagabonds could be made slaves for 2 years. This terrible law was abolished in Once again flogging was made the punishment for vagrancy. Instead people were held in prison until trial then the prisoner was given a physical punishment.A HISTORY OF 17TH CENTURY ENGLAND.
By Tim Lambert. England in the Early 17th Century. In King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England. The 's and '70's certainly belong to the most turbulent times in Dutch history. Until then, all attempts to restrain the Spanish king with his harsh and cruel policies had failed.
Numerous protests, appeals and even a petition went unheard. A HISTORY OF 17TH CENTURY ENGLAND. By Tim Lambert. England in the Early 17th Century. In King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England. He began a new dynasty - the Stuarts. Furthermore James believed in the divine right of kings.
In other words God had chosen him to rule. The Sixteenth Century The Fight Between Carnival and Lent, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The sixteenth century in Europe was a time of unprecedented change. It was the beginning of the modern era, and it saw a revolution in almost every aspect of life.
england in the 16th and 17th centuries [Revised and partly edited, January 20, , September 17, and September 14, ] 17th century England was troubled by the same kinds of problems as the rest of Europe--political, economic, and social tension made worse by religious division.
17thth Century Essayists. STUDY. PLAY. Francis Baconth century -turbulent times, death of Queen Elizabeth-search for truth • pp. 43 "I have left the repository of our English kings for the contemplation of another day" Purpose o to reflect on death from a new perspective.