Ongoing research, into the etiology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, has identified the most common risk factor as infection in combination with genetic susceptibility. An autoimmune reaction occurs as a result of an infection or trauma, this causes synovial hypertrophy and chronic joint inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a genetically complicated characteristic in which many genes are important as indications at the onset of the disease. Pathogenesis has many other contributing factors such as stress and maternal smoking.
Excerpt from Research Paper: This paper discusses the clinical manifestations that are considered unique among the subsections of juvenile arthritis, and explores those studies of cytokine profiles that suggest differences between the fundamental mechanisms of the different forms of these diseases.
Systemic-onset juvenile arthritis may, in reality, be better classified as differentiated from other subtypes of juvenile arthritis. However, new biologic agents such as the cytokines interleukin-1 and interleukin-6, are presently being licensed or tested, and these look to be promising in treating systemic-onset juvenile arthritis.
By comparison, anti-tumor necrosis-factor therapy has proven to be not very effective, if effective at all, in treating this subgroup of JA. Introduction Juvenile idiopathic arthritis JIA is described by The Merck Manual as "a group of rheumatic diseases that begins at or before age There are two types of Oligoarticular JIA including persistent and extended.
The Merck Manual,paraphrased The third type of JIA is Enthesitis-related arthritis and occurs more often among boys who are older with symptoms of inflammation that is painful at the site of tendons and ligaments insertion.
This may result in the development of "one of the spondyloarthropathies such as ankylosing spolndylitis or reactive arthritis.
The fourth type of JIA is Psoriatic JIA and is reported to "typically occurs in young girls and is associated with psoriasis, dactylitis swollen digitsnail pits, or a family history of psoriasis in a 1st-degree relative.
Arthritis is frequently oligoarticular. Finally, Systemic JIA is reported as the form of JIA that is leased common and is such that involves both "fever and systemic manifestations.
JIA is such that is reported to potentially impact multiple organs. The manifestations in the joints are reported to be either symmetric or asymmetric and to involve small or large joints.
JIA may interfere with the child's development and growth with the reported most common ocular abnormality being "iridocyclitis inflammation of the anterior chamber and anterior vitreous. Rarely, in enthesitis-related arthritis, there is conjunctival injection, pain, and photophobia.
Iridocyclitis can result in scarring synechiaglaucoma, or band keratopathy. Systemic JIA is characterized by "high fever, rash, splenomegaly, generalized adenopathy especially of the axillary nodesand serositis with pericarditis or pleuritis.
These symptoms may precede the development of arthritis. Fever occurs daily quotidian and is often highest in the afternoon or evening and may recur for weeks. The Merck Manual,p.
Traditional Therapy The management of JIA has traditionally been reliant on treatment with nonsteroidal medications then slowly additional traditional anti-rheumatic drugs such as sulfasalazine or methotrexate and avoiding systemic corticosteroids.
However, it is reported that intra-articular corticosteroid injections have been recently used in the approach to treatment. Hayward and Wallace,paraphrased There has been a growth in the types of agents used for JIA treatment due to biological therapeutics over the past decade.
Hayward and Wallace,paraphrased it is reported that TNFa is a "potential proinflammatory cytokine" and that there are three biologic agents "targeting TNFa being used currently in the treatment of JIA.
Etanercept binds to soluble TNF? And thus decreases downstream TNF? Etanercept was the first TNF? Unlike etanercept, infliximab binds both soluble as well as membrane-bound TNF?.
Infliximab has FDA approval in the United States for a variety of indications, including adult rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and adult and pediatric Crohn's disease for children older than 6 years of age.
Use in juvenile arthritis is not formally approved but remains a common application. Adalimumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody that binds soluble and membrane-bound TNF?.
One ILblocking agent is reported as being currently used in JIA with children and several others to still be under development. Anakinra, also known as Kineret is reported as a "recombinant form of the human IL-1 receptor" and used to block "endogenous IL-1 signaling.
Leflunomide was typically used with patients unable to tolerate the side effects of Methotrexate.Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) symptoms are different for each person who has this long-term disease.
Some people have long periods with few or no symptoms. Others feel it for months at a time in an. Introduction To Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Nursing Essay. Print Reference this.
Disclaimer: Introduction to Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis.
A new term for JRA has recently gained popularity–juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Idiopathic is a medical adjective which means when something happens spontaneously or without known cause.
Juvenile Arthritis Essay. Written by Paula Hall. The article titled "Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Symptoms and Diagnosis" by Jane Kelly talks about the symptoms such as, painful, stiff children suffering from Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is the most common chronic rheumatologic disease in children and is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood. * Systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis Essay Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic syndrome that is characterized by inflammation.
Arthritis can be short-term — lasting for just a few weeks or months, then going away forever — or it can be chronic and last for months or years. In about half of cases, it can last a lifetime.
The most prevalent form of juvenile arthritis is juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) (also known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, or JRA). It is.
If you have the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, such as pain, swelling, and stiff joints, your doctor may use the rheumatoid factor blood test to help diagnose it. This is a simple blood test.