It is a link between man, deities, and the Universal Purusa in a sacred space.
It is a link between man, deities, and the Universal Purusa in a sacred space. It is one of many grids used to build Hindu temples. In this structure of symmetry, each concentric layer has significance.
The outermost layer, Paisachika padas, signify aspects of Asuras and evil; while inner Devika padas signify aspects of Devas and good. Finally at the very center of Brahma padas is Grabhgriya Purusa Spacesignifying Universal Principle present in everything and everyone.
The pilgrim is welcomed through grid or grid mathematically structured spaces, a network of art, pillars with carvings and statues that display and celebrate the four important and necessary principles of human life — the pursuit of artha prosperity, wealththe pursuit of kama pleasure, sexthe pursuit of dharma virtues, ethical life and the pursuit of moksha release, self-knowledge.
The primary deity of different Hindu temples varies to reflect this spiritual spectrum. Their meaning and purpose have extended beyond spiritual life to social rituals and daily life, offering thus a social meaning. Some temples have served as a venue to mark festivals, to celebrate arts through dance and music, to get married or commemorate marriages,  commemorate the birth of a child, other significant life events, or mark the death of a loved one.
In political and economic life, Hindu temples have served as a venue for the succession within dynasties and landmarks around which economic activity thrived.
Hindu temple architecture Almost all Hindu temples take two forms: The temple is a place where the devotee visits, just like he or she would visit a friend or relative.
In Bhakti school of Hinduism, temples are venues for pujawhich is a hospitality ritual, where the deity is honored, and where devotee calls upon, attends to and connects with the deity. In other schools of Hinduism, the person may simply perform jap, or meditation, or yogaor introspection in his or her temple.
Palace-themed temples often incorporate more elaborate and monumental architecture. Site[ edit ] The appropriate site for a temple, suggest ancient Sanskrit texts, is near water and gardens, where lotus and flowers bloom, where swans, ducks and other birds are heard, where animals rest without fear of injury or harm.
The most common sites are those near water bodies, embedded in nature, such as the above at Badami, Karnataka. The gods always play where rivers have for their braclets the sound of curleys and the voice of swans for their speech, water as their garment, carps for their zone, the flowering trees on their banks as earrings, the confluence of rivers as their hips, raised sand banks as breasts and plumage of swans their mantle.
The gods always play where groves are near, rivers, mountains and springs, and in towns with pleasure gardens. Here too, they recommend that a pond be built preferably in front or to the left of the temple with water gardens.
If water is neither present naturally nor by design, water is symbolically present at the consecration of temple or the deity.
Temples may also be built, suggests Visnudharmottara in Part III of Chapter 93,  inside caves and carved stones, on hill tops affording peaceful views, mountain slopes overlooking beautiful valleys, inside forests and hermitages, next to gardens, or at the head of a town street.
Manuals[ edit ] Ancient builders of Hindu temples created manuals of architecture, called Vastu-Sastra literally "science" of dwelling; vas-tu is a composite Sanskrit word; vas means "reside", tu means "you" ; these contain Vastu-Vidya literally, knowledge of dwelling.
Yet, the Silpins were given wide latitude to experiment and express their creativity. These styles were perfected in Hindu temples prevalent in eastern states of India.
Other ancient texts found expand these architectural principles, suggesting that different parts of India developed, invented and added their own interpretations. For example, in Saurastra tradition of temple building found in western states of India, the feminine form, expressions and emotions are depicted in 32 types of Nataka-stri compared to 16 types described in Silpa Prakasa.
Other texts, such as Pancaratra Prasada Prasadhana compiled by Daniel Smith  and Silpa Ratnakara compiled by Narmada Sankara  provide a more extensive list of Hindu temple types.
There are many Hindu temple styles, but they almost universally share common geometric principles, symbolism of ideas, and expression of core beliefs.
The 64 grid is the most sacred and common Hindu temple template. The bright saffron center, where diagonals intersect above, represents the Purusha of Hindu philosophy. The name is a composite Sanskrit word with three of the most important components of the plan.
Mandala means circle, Purusha is universal essence at the core of Hindu tradition, while Vastu means the dwelling structure.
The four cardinal directions help create the axis of a Hindu temple, around which is formed a perfect square in the space available. The circle of mandala circumscribes the square. The square is considered divine for its perfection and as a symbolic product of knowledge and human thought, while circle is considered earthly, human and observed in everyday life moon, sun, horizon, water drop, rainbow.
Each supports the other. The central square s of the 64 or 81 grid is dedicated to the Brahman not to be confused with Brahminand are called Brahma padas. The mandala pada facing sunrise is dedicated to Surya deity Sun.
The Surya pada is flanked by the padas of Satya Truth deity on one side and Indra king of gods deity on other. The east and north faces of most temples feature a mix of gods and demi-gods; while west and south feature demons and demi-gods related to the underworld.
This is the main deity idol, and this varies with each temple. Often it is this idol that gives the temple a local name, such as Visnu temple, Krishna temple, Rama temple, Narayana temple, Siva temple, Lakshmi temple, Ganesha temple, Durga temple, Hanuman temple, Surya temple, and others.
Above the vastu-purusha-mandala is a superstructure with a dome called Shikhara in north India, and Vimana in south India, that stretches towards the sky. The vertical dimension's cupola or dome is designed as a pyramid, conical or other mountain-like shape, once again using principle of concentric circles and squares see below.When you use a browser, like Chrome, it saves some information from websites in its cache and cookies.
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Sangeelee Source: Paper presesnted at the First International Tamil Conference - Seminar Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 18 - 23 April As Christianity expanded leaving in its trail genocides,pillage and the destruction of indigenous pagan traditions it couldn’t always break the spirit of the common people it persecuted who still prayed to the old gods and celebrated them in most cases secretly.
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Essay questions - words each . A Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of god. It is a structure designed to bring human beings and gods together, using symbolism to express the ideas and beliefs of Hinduism.
The symbolism and structure of a Hindu temple are rooted in Vedic traditions, deploying circles and squares. A temple incorporates all elements of Hindu .