The college literary societies were a part of virtually all academic institutions. Usually they existed in pairs at a particular campus, and would compete for members and prestige, and supplemented the classical studies of the curriculum with modern literature and current events.
But not everything expressed in words—even when organized and written down—is counted as literature. Those writings that are primarily informative—technical, scholarly, journalistic—would be excluded from the rank of literature by most, though not all, critics.
Certain forms of writing, however, are universally regarded as belonging to literature as an art. Individual attempts within these forms are said to succeed if they possess something called artistic merit and to fail if they do not.
The nature of artistic merit is less easy to define than to recognize. The writer need not even pursue it to attain it. On the contrary, a scientific exposition might be of great literary value and a pedestrian poem of none at all.
The purest or, at least, the most intense literary form is the lyric poem, and after it comes elegiac, epic, dramatic, narrative, and expository verse. Most theories of literary criticism base themselves on an analysis of poetrybecause the aesthetic problems of literature are there presented in their simplest and purest form.
Poetry that fails as literature is not called poetry at all but verse. The Greeks thought of history as one of the seven arts, inspired by a goddess, the muse Clio.
The essay was once written deliberately as a piece of literature: Today most essays are written as expository, informative journalismalthough there are still essayists in the great tradition who think of themselves as artists. Now, as in the past, some of the greatest essayists are critics of literature, drama, and the arts.
Some examples of this biographical literature were written with posterity in mind, others with no thought of their being read by anyone but the writer. Some are in a highly polished literary style; others, couched in a privately evolved language, win their standing as literature because of their cogency, insight, depth, and scope.
Many works of philosophy are classed as literature. The Dialogues of Plato 4th century bc are written with great narrative skill and in the finest prose; the Meditations of the 2nd-century Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius are a collection of apparently random thoughts, and the Greek in which they are written is eccentric.
Yet both are classed as literature, while the speculations of other philosophers, ancient and modern, are not. Certain scientific works endure as literature long after their scientific content has become outdated.
This is particularly true of books of natural history, where the element of personal observation is of special importance. Oratorythe art of persuasion, was long considered a great literary art. The oratory of the American Indianfor instance, is famous, while in Classical Greece, Polymnia was the muse sacred to poetry and oratory.
Today, however, oratory is more usually thought of as a craft than as an art. Most critics would not admit advertising copywriting, purely commercial fiction, or cinema and television scripts as accepted forms of literary expression, although others would hotly dispute their exclusion.
The test in individual cases would seem to be one of enduring satisfaction and, of course, truth. Indeed, it becomes more and more difficult to categorize literature, for in modern civilization words are everywhere.
Man is subject to a continuous flood of communication. Most of it is fugitive, but here and there—in high-level journalism, in television, in the cinema, in commercial fiction, in westerns and detective stories, and in plain, expository prose—some writing, almost by accident, achieves an aesthetic satisfaction, a depth and relevance that entitle it to stand with other examples of the art of literature.
Critical theories Western If the early Egyptians or Sumerians had critical theories about the writing of literature, these have not survived. From the time of Classical Greece until the present day, however, Western criticism has been dominated by two opposing theories of the literary art, which might conveniently be called the expressive and constructive theories of composition.literary society b: a part of the community that sets itself apart as a leisure class and that regards itself as the arbiter of fashion and manners 5 a: a natural group of plants usually of a single species or habit within an association.
A utopia (/ j uː ˈ t oʊ p i ə / yoo-TOH-pee-ə) is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens. The opposite of a utopia is a monstermanfilm.com could also say that utopia is a perfect "place" that has been designed so there are no problems.
Utopia focuses on equality in economics, government and justice, though by no means. Literature: Literature, a body of written works.
The name has traditionally been applied to those imaginative works of poetry and prose distinguished by the intentions of their authors and the perceived aesthetic excellence of their execution. It may be classified according to a variety of systems, including language and genre. Definition: Patriarchal (adj.) describes a general structure in which men have power over monstermanfilm.comy (n.) is the entirety of relations of a community.
A patriarchal society consists of a male-dominated power structure throughout organized society and in individual relationships. This course was created by Rebecca Epperly Wire. You can contact her through the Facebook community group with questions. You can say thank you to her with a gift..
Please review the FAQs and contact us if you find a problem.. Credits: 1 Recommended: 10th, 11th, 12th (This is typically the 11th grade course.) Prerequisite: Literature and Composition, This follows British Literature and.
There is a difference between someone who is healthy, with mast cells that are functioning normally, and someone with a mast cell disorder, whose mast cells may be activating inappropriately in response to triggers, or may also be proliferating and accumulating in organ tissues.