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An estimate of the global prevalence and incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection Katharine J Looker a, Geoffrey P Garnett a, George P Schmid b Introduction Genital herpes may be caused by either herpes simplex virus type 1 HSV-1 or type 2 HSV-2 but, globally, the large majority of cases are caused by HSV-2; infection is common in both the industrialized and developing worlds, and HSV-2 uncommonly causes infection by non-sexual means.
Genital lesions due to herpes are often very painful, and can lead to substantial psychological morbidity. Neonatal infection can be very serious. The approach taken depends on the infection being measured.
For example, estimates of the incidence of chancroid could be based on numbers of reported clinical cases, because chancroid has characteristic clinical features and is a disease for which asymptomatic infection is uncommon.
The global burden of HSV-2 infection has never been systematically estimated. In common with other sexually transmitted infections, any estimate based on the number of reported cases of genital herpes will underestimate the prevalence of infection, since most people with HSV-2 are unaware they are infected.
Several studies have been conducted to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to HSV-2 in particular settings, either using blood collected specifically to measure HSV-2 seroprevalence, or using residual blood collected for other purposes. The nature, size and selection of the samples vary widely from study to study.
A small number of studies are large in size and examine prevalence in the population as a whole. A study in systematically reviewed the available prevalence data for HSV-2 by country, 28 but did not pool these data to produce prevalence estimates for entire regions, nor attempt to calculate numbers of individuals with prevalent HSV-2 infection.
Furthermore, this study only looked at prevalence data and did not consider incident infections. Using tables of seroprevalence data compiled in this review 28 and in our update of this review, 29 and using recently published data, pooled values of the HSV-2 prevalence by age and gender for all areas of the world are calculated.
Model fits are then performed to estimate the numbers of people with prevalent HSV-2 infection, and the numbers of new cases of HSV-2 infection, for the year No restrictions were placed on the searches with respect to language.
Studies identified as being relevant in the previous systematic reviews were also searched for incidence data. The abstract of each identified study was checked and those studies obviously not relevant were discarded.
The full text of each of the remaining studies was then checked and relevant studies retained. The small number of studies presenting HSV-2 seroincidence data precluded use of these data in the calculation of the global estimates of incident HSV-2 infection.
Instead, the HSV-2 prevalence data were used to estimate the numbers of both prevalent and incident infection. Data on the prevalence and incidence of HSV-2 identified in this review are available from the contact author on request. Data were grouped into 12 geographic regions, based largely on groupings used by the WHO for listing of countries in each region see Box 1, available at: Listing of countries in each of 12 regions Australia and New Zealand.For each of the 12 regions, pooled prevalence values by age and gender were generated using a random-effect model.
Pooled prevalence values by age and gender were also calculated for four subregions within sub-Saharan Africa (eastern Africa, middle Africa, southern Africa and western Africa) since it is thought that HSV-2 prevalence varies .
Advocates for Youth champions efforts that help young people make informed and responsible decisions about their reproductive and sexual health. Advocates believes it can best serve the field by boldly advocating for a more positive and realistic approach to adolescent sexual health.
Advocates focuses its work on young people ages in the U.S. and around the globe. Health E-Stats are internet-only releases on current and timely health topics that feature highlights from all NCHS data systems.
This list of all Health E-Stats that have been released to date is presented in an interactive, searchable, and sortable data tables format.
Teenage pregnancy; Synonyms: Teen pregnancy, adolescent pregnancy: A US government poster on teen pregnancy. Over teenagers, mostly aged 18 or 19, give birth every day in the United States.
Classification and external resources. Teenage pregnancy rate in the United States from to (per 1, women) Teenage pregnancy rate in the U.S. Teenage pregnancy rate in the United States from to , by age. Teenage pregnancy, also known as adolescent pregnancy, is pregnancy in a female under the age of Pregnancy can occur with sexual intercourse after the start of ovulation, which can be before the first menstrual period (menarche) but usually occurs after the onset of periods.
In well-nourished females, the first period usually takes place around the age of 12 or