Early Encounters between Native Americans and Europeans by Steven Schwartz Background Early European explorers to the Americas likely experienced emotions including awe at the vast "new" environment, amazement at meeting "others," the thrill of the unknown, concern for personal safety, desire for personal reward, and longing for their homeland and those left behind. Written and pictorial records attributed to Europeans provide the bulk of the records of these early travels. Impressions of natives as well as Native impressions of Europeans are frequently framed in the narratives of the explorers.
Not unlike the private contractors in Iraq, the Indian agents in the field typically did much better than the people they were charged with protecting and assisting.
With much bloodshed and ruthless, duplicitous behavior, the indigenous population of the US was driven from its homelands, and confined to reservations. Except for the tribes, like the Mandans on the Plains, that died off completely.
Tactics included wanton slaughter of the buffalo to deprive the natives of their means of material survival, thus forcing them into submission and opening up their territories for white settlers. Private Allotments The latter option was only partially accomplished via bounties for Indian scalps, and other atrocitiesand the former eventually became policy.
In the s, the Dawes Act was passeddividing much reservation land into individually owned allotments, meant to be developed as family farms. In short order, most Indian land ended up in non-Indian ownership. This is not so surprising, if one considers that the Indians had non-written languages, and concepts like foreclosure and executed contracts and arguing cases before judges in courtrooms were utterly and completely alien to them.
Of course, this is grossly oversimplified, since there are a wide array of cultures amongst the hundreds of different tribes once native within the present U. But it applies pretty well to the nomadic Plains tribes with reservations on the High Plains. In time, the ability to transfer title of Indian land to non-Indian owners was curtailed.
Legally, to this day, the federal government has a trust responsibility towards the tribes. Tribes exist, legally, as dependent sovereign entities, with all the ambiguity and confusion that oxymoronic phrase suggests.
There are treaty obligations the U. For laying down their arms, and not contesting i. Those obligations include health care, education and various general welfare items such as roads. Too often, uninformed people tend to think of those obligations as some kind of welfare.
The federal government, via the Bureau of Indian affairs long since transferred from War to Interior Dept. Remembering that the allotments were first carved up back in the s, and that the owners typically died without written wills or even file change of title much less have a survey done when a piece of land was sold or given away, keeping track of the ownership of these tracts is a non-trivial problem.
The feds, as trustees, have leased out lands for various purposes over the decades — purposes such as logging, mining, grazing, farming where non-Indians could get soil bank payments for not planting crops, but Indians could not and oil and gas drilling.
As trustees, the Bureau of Indian Affairs BIA was supposed to account for those payments, and disburse them to the land owners. The records were bad, and back in the s, a Blackfeet woman from Montana called Eloise Cobell, a banker, started getting serious about getting those records accounted for, and proper payments made to landowners for said leases.
Let me restate the problem: A trustee in any other context would have had their ass tossed in jail long since for such sloppy work.
And so was born the Cobell class action lawsuit, filed in May 30, · Pocahontas was a Native American woman born around marked the last major effort by the Native Americans of southern New England to . Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. In the early s, the encroachment of white settlers onto Native American tribal lands in the New England area resulted in armed conflicts like the Pequot War and King Philip's War.
Wars like these were highly destructive on both sides, but much more so for the Native Americans of the New England region. An organization (usually a ruling government) forces a person to disappear from public view.
The way this is achieved is through murder or assassination. The body disposed where it will never be found. Social Studies It's the first network I check every morning after kissing my husband, hugging my kids and making my first cup of coffee.
Create a Colonist Social Studies Mini-Project. History class Teaching history US history Social Studies Activities Teaching social studies 5th Grade Social Studies Native American Tribe's Native.
( – September 12, ) is said to be the first person from the Mayflower to set foot on Plymouth Rock in He was a ship-carpenter by trade and a cooper .